Historically, the Aztec name for the huge basaltic monolith is Cuauhxicalli Eagle Bowl, but it is universally known as the Aztec Calendar or Sun Stone.
It was during the reign of the 6th Aztec monarch in 1479 that this stone was carved and dedicated to the principal Aztec deity: the sun. The stone has both mythological and astronomical significance. It weighs almost 25 tons, has a diameter of just under 12 feet, and a thickness of 3 feet.
Dec. 21, 2012 is the final day of the Long Count cycle, a 144,000-day period which Mayans believed would repeat 12 times, after starting in August 3114 BC. In Mayan numerology, this year's winter solstice, Dec. 21, is the significantly round number 126.96.36.199.0.
Tonalpohualli , Xiuhpohualli calendars
Every 52 years the tonalpohualli and the xiuhpohualli calendars would align. This marked what was known as a mesoamerican "century." Every one of these centuries was marked by xiuhmolpilli - Binding Up of the Years or the New Fire Ceremony.This was a festival that lasted 12 days and included fasting as a symbol of penitence. At the beginning of this festival all the lights in the city were extinguished - people let their hearth fires go out.
Traces of nicotine discovered in a Mayan flask dating back more than 1,000 years represent the first physical evidence of tobacco use by the Mayans, researchers say. "Textual evidence written on pottery is often an indicator of contents or of an intended purpose - however, actual usage of a container could be altered or falsely represented," said study researcher Jennifer Loughmiller-Newman of the University at Albany.
The Maya's important artistic and intellectual achievements reached their height during its Classic Period when the society was organized around rulers at cities such as Calakmul, Tikal, Copan and Palenque.
Southeastern Indians were irate after several non-Native Americans mocked their traditions while commenting on an archaeological discovery of Maya place names and apparent Itza Maya ruins in the Georgia Mountains. Three archaeologists from Florida, Georgia and South Africa stated emphatically to the Examiner, ABC News and the Atlanta Journal-Constitution that no Mexican Indians had ever migrated to the Southeastern United States.
If this is the case, then apparently the indigenous peoples of the Americas had very advanced technology for artificial insemination and the transportation of human ova (eggs) and semen across the Gulf of Mexico.