Incan Calender Months and Years

The Inca calendar exists because the Incas follow the stars from rudimentary observatories. They follow the movements of the sun, moon and stars. They follow, register and predict all types of events, like the solstice and equinox.

Inca had two calendars. One was a solar calendar or day time calendar, and the other one was lunar calendar or night time calendar.

The day time calendar was based on the solar cycle. They counted approximately 365 days in this calendar. This calendar was used for economic activities such as agriculture, mining, warfare and construction. This calendar was very important to Inca people, since they depend on this to fix the days on planting.

The night time calendar is used to mark the days of the all festivals. Since this calendar was based on moon it had only 328 days. Which meant twelve months of 27,33 days. Since lunar month is actually 28 days long, so it matches with the lunar months.

First Month- December

Inca Lunar Month : Capaq Raymi

Inca solar month : Coca Planting

It was called Capaq Raymi, as the Capaq Raymi festival took place in this month. Capaq Raymi means Great Feast of Sun. They sacrificed gold, silver and lives to Sun. As per solar Calendar this was the month of Coca Planting.

Second Month- January

Inca Lunar Month : Camay Quilla

Inca solar month : Weeding of fields

Inca did their fasting and penance on this month. They offered sacrifices to Viracocha and covered their bodies with ashes.

Third Month- February

Inca Lunar Month : Hatun-pucuy

Inca solar month : Harvest of potato and other root crops

Ceremonies were held to increase the corn and other crops.

Fourth Month- March

Inca Lunar Month : Pacha-pucuy

Inca solar month : Harvest of potato and other root crops

Ceremonies were held to ensure that the crops ripened properly. Other ceremonies were held where people deprived themselves of salt and fruit.

Fifth Month- April

Inca Lunar Month : Ayruhua

Inca solar month : Protecting corn field from deer, foxes.

Ceremonies honoring the Inca king were held.

Sixth Month- May

Inca Lunar Month : Ayruhua

Inca solar month : Corn harvested

They enjoyed the celebration of corn harvested. Feast of Aymara was enjoyed with singing, drinking and dancing.

Seventh Month- June

Inca Lunar Month : Inti Raymi

Inca solar month : Large potatoes were harvested and others planted

They enjoyed the Inti Raymi festival. It was the biggest festival of the year.

Eighth Month- July

Inca Lunar Month : Chahua - huarquiz

Inca solar month : Storage of potatoes and other crops

They enjoyed festival of harvest and ceremonies regarding irrigation.

Ninth Month- August

Inca Lunar Month : Yapaquiz

Inca solar month : Planting of the corn and potato crops

Sacrifices were made to all the Gods in this month, specially to those who were related to force of nature.

Tenth Month- September

Inca Lunar Month : Coya Raymi

Inca solar month : Planting of the corn and potato crops

This time great feast for moon was celebrated. Also this is the month of purification. Cusco is purified.

Eleventh Month- October

Inca Lunar Month : Kantaray

Inca solar month : nothing specific

This was the driest season of the year. So they held ceremonies where they prey to their God for rainfall.

Twelfth Month- November

Inca Lunar Month : Ayamarca

Inca solar month : Irrigation of the corn fields

The festivals of dead were conducted in this month. They carried the mummies of dead kings only. Then they were offered foods. People sang and danced around those mummies in the main square.

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